Overthrowing Other People’s Governments: The Master List of U.S. “Regime Changes”

By William Blum (www.williamblum.org), 1 February 2013
(Reposted on Global Research, September 10, 2014)

Instances of the United States overthrowing, or attempting to overthrow, a foreign government since the Second World War. (* indicates successful ouster of a government)

  • China 1949 to early 1960s
  • Albania 1949-53
  • East Germany 1950s
  • Iran 1953 *
  • Guatemala 1954 *
  • Costa Rica mid-1950s
  • Syria 1956-7
  • Egypt 1957
  • Indonesia 1957-8
  • British Guiana 1953-64 *
  • Iraq 1963 *
  • North Vietnam 1945-73
  • Cambodia 1955-70 *
  • Laos 1958 *, 1959 *, 1960 *
  • Ecuador 1960-63 *
  • Congo 1960 *
  • France 1965
  • Brazil 1962-64 *
  • Dominican Republic 1963 *
  • Cuba 1959 to present
  • Bolivia 1964 *
  • Indonesia 1965 *
  • Ghana 1966 *
  • Chile 1964-73 *
  • Greece 1967 *
  • Costa Rica 1970-71
  • Bolivia 1971 *
  • Australia 1973-75 *
  • Angola 1975, 1980s
  • Zaire 1975
  • Portugal 1974-76 *
  • Jamaica 1976-80 *
  • Seychelles 1979-81
  • Chad 1981-82 *
  • Grenada 1983 *
  • South Yemen 1982-84
  • Suriname 1982-84
  • Fiji 1987 *
  • Libya 1980s
  • Nicaragua 1981-90 *
  • Panama 1989 *
  • Bulgaria 1990 *
  • Albania 1991 *
  • Iraq 1991
  • Afghanistan 1980s *
  • Somalia 1993
  • Yugoslavia 1999-2000 *
  • Ecuador 2000 *
  • Afghanistan 2001 *
  • Venezuela 2002 *
  • Iraq 2003 *
  • Haiti 2004 *
  • Somalia 2007 to present
  • Libya 2011*
  • Syria 2012

Q: Why will there never be a coup d’état in Washington?

A: Because there’s no American embassy there.


Global Research Editor’s note: To this list published in February 2013, we must add Ukraine, where Viktor Yanukovych was successfully ousted in February 2014. http://www.globalresearch.ca/overthrowing-other-peoples-governments-the-master-list-of-u-s-regime-changes/5400829

William Blum is the author of several books, including Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions since World War II, America’s Deadliest Export: Democracy, and Freeing the World to Death.

Other books on this subject include Confessions of an Economic Hitman by John Perkins, and Empire’s Workshop by Greg Grandin.

Talk of nuclear war over Ukraine beginning to surface In mainstream media

By Brandon Turbeville
September 5, 2014
Activist Post

Until now, the talk of nuclear warfare between the United States and Russia has been confined to prescient and observant researchers[i] largely operating within the alternative media. Western media outlets, while attempting to Portray Putin as the new Hitler and Russia as a provocateur, still attempt to paint a picture of a winnable confrontation between the two superpowers. Indeed, Western media outlets along with opportunistic politicians are attempting to nurture anti-Russian sentiment amongst the American people who, unfortunately, have no real sense of the consequences of military action.

Thus, when researchers warn of the dangers of nuclear war, Americans are conditioned to ignore these warnings. Nuclear war would never happen, they think. The powers-that-be would never allow it. Only conspiracy theorists and paranoids would concern themselves with the possibility that major leaders might actually ignite the world in a nuclear holocaust.[ii]

Unfortunately, such an outlook on the current state of geopolitics is simply naïve.

Following the recent statements from Russian General Yury Yakubov regarding his desire to see Russian military nuclear policy restructured to allow for pre-emptive use of nuclear weapons against the U.S. and NATO, the former President of Poland, Lech Walesa, has also uttered the “N word,” in the mainstream press.

When asked whether or not he thought the European Union should send weapons to Western-backed fascists in Kiev,[iii] Walesa wisely stated that such a move was a bad idea. “It could lead to a nuclear war,” he said.

One of the few public figures to inject some level of sanity into the mainstream international discussion over Ukraine, Walesa also stated, “The EU is well aware that Russia has nuclear weapons. NATO has them too. Must we then destroy each other?”

Walesa’s fears are very real. As mentioned above, Russian General Yakubov recently stated his desire to see the Russian military doctrine revised so as to allow for the pre-emptive use [iv]of nuclear weapons. Yakubov stated,

First and foremost, the likely enemy of Russia should be clearly identified in this strategic document, something absent from the 2010 military doctrine. In my view, our primary enemy is the U.S. and the North Atlantic bloc.


In addition, it is necessary to hash out the conditions under which Russia could carry out a preemptive strike with the Russian Strategic Rocket Forces.

Of course, the truth is that the United States and NATO are the primary enemies of Russia. Indeed, the entire Ukrainian crisis is the handiwork of NATO and the US since the two are responsible for creating, sponsoring, [v]and directing the Euromaidan movement[vi] that overthrow the elected government of Ukraine and installed fascists, Nazis, puppets, and central bankers in its place.[vii]

Even as Vladmir Putin has managed to secure a fragile ceasefire in Ukraine, the United States and NATO have responded in a typical provocative fashion[viii] that reveals their true intentions regarding Ukraine.

Only hours after the ceasefire was announced, NATO and the United States announced that dynamic duo of destabilization was going ahead with planned military exercises in Western Ukraine that will see approximately 1,000 troops posted on Ukrainian soil.

Shortly ahead of the NATO meeting, Barack Obama stated from Estonia[ix] “that the U.S. and NATO would not allow a foreign country to encroach on its friends. He said this after blaming Moscow for the political turmoil in Ukraine. He was a hair away from saying that the U.S. would protect Ukraine from a Russian military attack.

If the NATO exercises were not enough to inflame tensions in the fragile country, four NATO warships are also set to enter the Black Sea this week. USS Ross, an Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer, French Commandant Birot, Canadian HMCS Toronto, a Halifax-class frigate, and Spanish frigate Almirante Juan de Borbon are all set to enter the Black Sea before September 7.

Regardless of the realities of the situation, however, the American people are falling prey to the propaganda of the mainstream media and Western oligarchs who present Russia as the new Nazi Germany and seek to stir up nationalistic fervor and synthetic patriotism for the purposes of motivating the general public into supporting a confrontation between two nuclear powers. Fueled by years of television and Hollywood production, Americans are entirely insulated in terms of the consequences of such a confrontation.

For far too long, Americans have envisaged war as something America does to other people far away.

The reality is that, if the American people do not wise up and see past the propaganda being fed to them on a daily basis,[x] they may soon find out that war is a two-way street.

Link to article:


Brandon Turbeville is an author out of Florence, South Carolina. He has a Bachelor’s Degree from Francis Marion University and is the author of six books, Codex Alimentarius — The End of Health Freedom, 7 Real Conspiracies, Five Sense Solutions and Dispatches From a Dissident, volume 1 and volume 2, and The Road to Damascus: The Anglo-American Assault on Syria. Turbeville has published over 300 articles dealing on a wide variety of subjects including health, economics, government corruption, and civil liberties. Brandon Turbeville’s podcast Truth on The Tracks can be found every Monday night 9 pm EST at UCYTV. He is available for radio and TV interviews. Please contact activistpost (at) gmail.com.


[i] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GVV3hcMa698

[ii] http://www.amazon.com/Nuclear-Survival-Skills-Upgraded-Edition/dp/098132181X?tag=permacultucom-20&linkCode=w13&linkID=FGBNVPA47LBE2NTM&ref_=assoc_res_sw_result_3

[iii] http://news.yahoo.com/arming-ukraine-could-lead-nuclear-war-lech-walesa-183453862.html

[iv] http://www.themoscowtimes.com/article/506370.html

[v] http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article37599.htm

[vi] http://journal-neo.org/2014/03/07/bbc-now-admits-armed-nazis-led/

[vii] http://www.activistpost.com/2014/03/ukraine-revolution-places-elites-back.html

[viii] http://www.activistpost.com/2014/09/russia-negotiates-ceasefire-in-ukraine.html

[ix] http://www.forbes.com/sites/kenrapoza/2014/09/03/hours-after-russia-succeeds-with-cease-fire-u-s-military-heads-to-ukraine/

[x] http://www.amazon.com/Media-Control-Second-Edition-Achievements/dp/1583225366?tag=permacultucom-20&linkCode=w13&linkID=FGBNVPA47LBE2NTM&ref_=assoc_res_sw_result_7

Phantom tanks and the desperation of Kiev

By Caleb Maupin

Posted on Activist Post, September 6, 2014

How many times have we seen this before?

The President of the United States is on TV telling us horror stories. Some innocent people in some corner of the world are being crushed, he tells us. They face some monstrously evil oppressor, he says. While the United States doesn’t like war, what choice is there? Sacrifices must be made, cruise missiles must be unleashed, to protect the poor and innocent. The world is the set of an action movie, and the US is the tragic hero, forced to rescue the innocent.

This is the script we heard in former Yugoslavia. Bill Clinton claimed to be stopping “mass rapes” and “concentration camps.” After the smoke had cleared, and thousands had been killed, the truth came out. The United Nations admitted that no “genocide” had taken place. The talk of mass rapes and concentration camps had been hype.

While the alleged crimes used to justify destroying Serbia had been exaggerated, the crimes of the US-funded Kosovo Liberation Army were very real. The Balkans have never recovered from the bombing and destruction and the funding of ethnic hate groups. The “rescue mission” resulted in deeper misery than ever before.

We heard this script in Libya. Obama told horror stories about Gaddafi. As US-backed insurgents were defeated on the battlefield, the US and NATO unleashed a horrific bombing campaign. Now Libya, once the wealthiest country on the African continent, is in ruin. The country has been destroyed, and rival factions battle for power surrounded by poverty.

In Syria, propaganda about alleged crimes by President Bashar Assad have been used to justify Western support for an ugly civil war. Syria had been one of the more prosperous and peaceful countries of the region, but the US and its allies continue to funnel money to armed terrorists. A war that would have ended in a few months has dragged on for four years, with nearly 150,000 dead, and millions forced to become refugees.

Lies about “humanitarian crises” are a common justification for destructive wars from the United States. The result of US military attack is usually the worsening of conditions for the people.

The Unpopularity of US Allies

Forces aligned with the US also tend to be quite unpopular.

In Serbia, a very small percentage of the population supported the Kosovo Liberation Army. This was a group of armed religious extremists. The brutal tactics of the organization made it highly unpopular, even with the ethnic-Albanians it claimed to be fighting on behalf of. Because the group had no chance of winning on the battlefield, it called for NATO bombs to destroy its enemy.

The same can be said for the terrorist insurgents in Libya. Numerous times they were defeated. Supporters of Gaddafi staged rallies with millions of people in attendance. The regular Libyan army was accompanied by popular community militias. Libyans from all across the country fought in support of their government, which had provided them with a very high standard of living. As the Libyan insurgents were defeated, despite their stockpiles of US guns and money, the call for US and NATO support went up.

In Syria, the insurgents are similar in their character. They may have had a very small base of support among certain Sunni communities, but even this had completely eroded since the war began. The brutality and religious extremism of the terrorists does not help their popularity. The anti-Assad insurgency depends on money, guns, and fighters from other parts of the world because it has little support among the population. The Syrian government has arrested terrorists from as far off as Malaysia, shipped in to kill in Syria. Impoverished children from other parts of the world are being forcibly recruited and indoctrinated into these armed groups that come to Syria and use their US-supplied guns to slaughter civilians.

Now, in Ukraine, we once again see weak US-aligned terrorists begging for US/NATO support, in hopes that they can defeat their own people.

The Only Hope for the Fascists

In the early months of 2014, the elected Ukrainian government was removed by a violent mob of fascists. The new regime, imposed by the West, and backed with millions of dollars from Western banks and NGOs now faces an uprising of its people.

The regime’s brutal tactics, burning innocent people alive, employing Neo-Nazi terrorist groups, bombing civilians, and engaging in other cowardly acts of fascist violence, are not rendering victory.

Even many of the most bigoted, Russian-hating people in West Ukraine are unwilling to die for a regime that has cut the retirement pension by 50% and doubled the price of heating oil. The economic dominion of IMF and the European Union mean poverty for throughout Ukraine’s various regions and ethnic groups.

A number of Ukrainian soldiers have already laid down their guns, rather than kill women and children from their own country. What was presented at first an as “Anti-Terrorist” police operation, has stretched for months. Kiev has attempted to declare that those who have risen up against them are merely paid Russian agents, but it is now clear to all observers that they have a huge amount of support among the population.

Predictably, the Kiev Junta is doing what the Kosovo Liberation Army, the Libyan insurgents, and the terrorists in Syria have done. As they face defeat on the battlefield, and support for them even among their own base is crumbling, they turn to Washington to do the fighting for them.

Kiev seems to have pinned its hope for US/NATO intervention on creating a mythology about a “Russian Invasion.” Kiev is doing its best to convince the world that Russia is marching into their country. They have falsified stories of tanks crossing the border. They have tried to claim that the resistance fighters in Donbass are actually Russian special forces. They hope that they can create some kind of justification for further US/NATO intervention.

The only hope the Kiev Junta, with its Neo-Nazi thug militias, its banning of the Russian language, its destruction of WWII memorials, and vicious austerity measures has, is further US intervention. It cannot win a war against its own population.

Caleb Maupin is a political analyst and activist based in New York. He studied political science at Baldwin-Wallace College and was inspired and involved in the Occupy Wall Street movement, especially for the online magazine “New Eastern Outlook”, where this first appeared.




Posted in


US Vice President Biden’s son is director in Ukrainian gas company, involved in toxic hydrofracking

The Ukrainian crisis is very profitable for many.

Hunter Biden, the son of United States Vice President Joe Biden, was recently elected to the board of the largest natural gas company in Ukraine. Hunter is also on the Chairman’s Advisory Board for the National Democratic Institute, an organization connected with regime change and propping up questionable elections.[i] With Joe Biden himself at the Kiev regime’s inauguration of President Poroshenko on June 7 and very supportive of the Maidan coup, all of this is connected.

Given the years of planning and work that culminated in the coup and installation of the regime government, these are the profitable results for those in the know and with the power to control the system. This article is a shocking demonstration of how power can sweep away rules, procedures, and citizens’ rights, as well as any regard for the environment.

These are the new Huns. This is about rape and pillage. American citizens seem deaf and blind to their own government’s predatory and destructive actions, content to believe lies about Russian aggression instead of the truth.

Will people wake up before there is nothing left?

From Zero Hedge, 7/25/2014:

Company In Which Joe Biden’s Son Is Director Prepares To Drill Shale Gas In East Ukraine

Submitted by Tyler Durden

Recall what we said earlier today: the proxy Ukraine war just like that in Syria preceding it, “is all about energy.”

Recall also the following chart showing Ukraine’s shale gas deposits, keeping in mind that the Dnieper-Donets basin which lies in the hotly contested eastern part of the nation and where as everyone knows by now a bloody civil war is raging, is the major oil and gas producing region of Ukraine accounting for approximately 90 per cent of Ukrainian production and according to EIA may have 42 tcf of shale gas resources technically recoverable from 197 tcf of risked shale gas in place.

Finally, recall our story from May that Joe Biden’s son, Hunter, just joined the board of the largest Ukraine gas producer Burisma Holdings. From the press release:

R. Hunter Biden will be in charge of the Holdings’ legal unit and will provide support for the Company among international organizations. On his new appointment, he commented: “Burisma’s track record of innovations and industry leadership in the field of natural gas means that it can be a strong driver of a strong economy in Ukraine. As a new member of the Board, I believe that my assistance in consulting the Company on matters of transparency, corporate governance and responsibility, international expansion and other priorities will contribute to the economy and benefit the people of Ukraine.”

R. Hunter Biden is also a well-known public figure. He is chairman of the Board of the World Food Programme U.S.A., together with the world’s largest humanitarian organization, the United Nations World Food Programme. In this capacity he offers assistance to the poor in developing countries, fighting hunger and poverty, and helping to provide food and education to 300 million malnourished children around the world.

Company Background: 

Burisma Holdings is a privately owned oil and gas company with assets in Ukraine and operating in the energy market since 2002. To date, the company holds a portfolio with permits to develop fields in the Dnieper-Donets, the Carpathian and the Azov-Kuban basins. In 2013, the daily gas production grew steadily and at year-end amounted to 11.6 thousand BOE (barrels of oil equivalent – incl. gas, condensate and crude oil), or 1.8 million m3 of natural gas. The company sells these volumes in the domestic market through traders, as well as directly to final consumers.

Now put it all together and what happens next should be rather clear.

* * *

Still confused? It’s very simple, really.

In a nutshell Ukraine (or rather its puppetmasters) has decided to let no crisis (staged or otherwise) or rather civil war, go to waste, and while the fighting rages all around, Ukrainian troopers are helping to install shale gas production equipment near the east Ukrainian town of Slavyansk, which was bombed and shelled for the three preceding months, according to local residents cited by Itar Tass. The reason for the scramble? Under peacetime, the process was expected to take many years, during which Europe would be under the energy dictatorship of Putin. But throw in some civil war and few will notice let alone care that a process which was expected to take nearly a decade if not longer while dealing with broad popular objections to fracking, may instead be completed in months!

Civilians protected by Ukrainian army are getting ready to install drilling rigs. More equipment is being brought in,” they said, adding that the military are encircling the future extraction area.

The people of Slavyansk, which is located in the heart of the Yzovka shale gas field, staged numerous protest actions in the past against its development. They even wanted to call in a referendum on that subject. Environmentalists are particularly concerned with the consequences of hydrofracing, a method used for shale gas extraction, because it implies the use of extremely toxic chemical agents which can poison not only subsoil waters but also the atmosphere. Experts claim that not a single country in the world has invented a method of utilization of harmful toxic agents in the process of development of shale gas deposits.

Countries like the Czech Republic, the Netherlands and France have given up plans to develop shale gas deposits in their territories.

Not only them but also all-important Germany, which two weeks ago announced it would halt shale-gas drilling for the next seven years over groundwater pollution concerns.

Which clearly makes Ukraine, potentially the last place with massive shale gas deposits and no drilling ban, quite valuable to those who want to develop a major source of shale gas, one which reduces Europe’s reliance on Russian gas even more, yet one whose future depends on one simple question: who controls East Ukraine?

Because what better way to accelerate “next steps” than to start drilling for gas in the middle of the Donetsk republic as a civil war is waging in all directions, and where public mood has shifted decidedly against the local “separatists” in the aftermath of the MH-17 tragedy.

The punchline: who will develop the gas field in conjunction with Shell (jointly owned by the Netherlands and the UK: the two countries that loathe Putin the most in the aftermath of the MH-17 disaster) which in May 2012 announced a tender for the right to develop the Yuzovka shale gas deposit?

Burisma, Ukraine’s oil and gas production holdings, also has the right to develop the shale gas fields in the Dnieper-Donetsk basin of Eastern Ukraine. The same Burisma where R. Hunter Biden, Joseph’s son, was appointed a director two months ago.



Posted under Fair Use Rules.


[i] http://www.globalresearch.ca/target-ukraine-how-foreign-intervention-is-tearing-the-country-apart/5371613
Target: Ukraine – How Foreign Intervention is Tearing the Country Apart

As The Guardian noted at the time of the protests:

“[…]the campaign [Orange Revolution] is an American creation, a sophisticated and brilliantly conceived exercise in western branding and mass marketing that, in four countries in four years, has been used to try to salvage rigged elections and topple unsavoury regimes.[…]The Democratic parrty’s National Democratic Institute, the Republican party’s International Republican Institute, the US state department and USAid are the main agencies involved in these grassroots campaigns as well as the Freedom House NGO and billionaire George Soros’s open society institute.”


US gas exporters may be big beneficiaries of Ukraine crisis

The article below considers this turn of events a coincidence. Given the author’s belief that Russia has caused this crisis, that might make sense. However, if the writer delved into Ukrainian-US history just a bit, he might come away with a more cynical and realistic view.


NEWS ANALYSIS: US gas exporters may be main beneficiaries of Ukraine crisis
September 05 2014
by Clyde Russell

LAUNCETON — Here is one for conspiracy theorists: US proponents of liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects joined with coal miners and Chinese gas buyers to pay Vladimir Putin to stir up rebellion in Ukraine.

This is of course a ridiculous notion, but it does underscore that the main beneficiaries of the Ukraine crisis are likely to be those that can take advantage of the shift in global energy flows that may be the lasting legacy of the conflict.

While the immediate focus is on efforts to bring peace to Ukraine, the longer-term effect is likely to see Europe seek alternatives to Russian natural gas, and Russia seeking other markets for its energy exports.

Russian President Putin has outlined plans for a ceasefire between pro-Russian rebels and Ukrainian forces in the disputed east of the country, which were dismissed by the authorities in Kiev.

While the conflict has yet to have an effect on natural gas flows from Russia, through Ukraine, to Europe, the longer it goes on, the greater the risks become.

The European Union (EU) gets about a third of its natural gas supplies from Russia, with a significant amount going through pipelines across Ukraine. So far, Europeans have reacted to the crisis by boosting storage levels, with tanks across the EU at 71% capacity, up from 34% at this time last year.

While this may mitigate immediate shortages this winter, the problem remains for many European countries that their energy security is largely in the hands of Russia, a country they increasingly view as a threat to regional stability.

In addition, European nations are exposed to unstable minor nations that act as conduits for Russian natural gas or oil flows.

The prudent thing to do is to diversify the energy supply sources, especially for countries most reliant on Russian imports, such as Greece and nations in southeast Europe.

Greece has one small LNG import terminal, while Croatia is building a facility. Poland is also building a regasification terminal, and other such plants are under construction, or planned, for Finland, Lithuania, France and Spain.

It may be prudent for the natural gas importing nations of Europe to consider building more LNG receiving terminals, or encouraging the development of intra-Europe pipelines that can supply them in case of interruptions from Russia.

If this concern over Russia translates into action, then the planned and proposed US LNG exporters will be the major beneficiaries.

Some 48-million tonnes per annum of LNG capacity has been approved by the US authorities, and the first project, Sabine Pass, is due to start exports next year.

There is a potential for at least 160-million tonnes per annum more of LNG in the US, although the chances of all this being built are extremely remote. This is largely because the LNG exports, as initially envisaged, were targeted at Asian demand, led by China.

But as is often the case in commodity markets, as soon as a supply gap opens up, it is rapidly closed, and then the market gets over-supplied as project developers rush in with apparently little thought as to what their competitors are doing.

However, the possibility of higher LNG imports into Europe may entice some US developers, given they will be more competitive than other potential suppliers to the Old World because of lower transport costs and cheaper shale gas as a feedstock.

US coal miners may also benefit from Europe’s renewed interest in the fuel, as again, they will be able to supply it more cost-effectively.

Russia’s major energy firms, such as Gazprom, are unlikely to want to surrender market share in Europe, hence their efforts to convince buyers that despite the Ukraine conflict, Russia remains a reliable supplier.

But it would be logical for Russian companies to continue to look east, toward China and Southeast Asia, for new customers.


Another article with information on the role of shale gas in the crisis

Beneath the Ukraine Crisis: Shale Gas
(originally posted at http://consortiumnews.com/)

Posted under Fair Use Rules.

August 25, Poroshenko dissolved Ukraine’s Parliament

Los Angeles Times report, Aug. 25, 2014


Ukraine’s newly inaugurated president dissolved the contentious parliament  Monday and set early elections for Oct. 26 in a move that will probably put further pressure on the country’s east-west divide.

President Petro Poroshenko had promised during his spring electoral campaign to resolve the standoff between parliamentary deputies of his coalition and the loyalists of former President Viktor Yanukovich, who was deposed by a pro-Western rebellion in late February.

The act of dissolving the Supreme Council was announced by Poroshenko on the presidential website late Monday and reported by the Ukrinform news agency.

…Ukraine’s newly inaugurated president dissolved the contentious parliament  Monday and set early elections for Oct. 26 in a move that will probably put further pressure on the country’s east-west divide.


Ukraine president dissolves parliament, sets Oct. 26 election


Ukraine president calls snap election as he prepares for Putin meeting

Operation Gladio and NATO’s stay-behind armies — a timeline of events

From Anomalies.Net

Secret Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO’s Stay-Behind Armies

Posted on Global Research, September 03, 2012

1940 In England Prime Minister Winston Churchill creates the secret stay-behind army Special Operations Executive (SOE) to set Europe ablaze by assisting resistance movements and carrying out subversive operations in enemy held territory. After the end of World War Two the stay-behind armies are created on the experiences and strategies of SOE with the involvement of former SOE officers.

1944 London and Washington agree on the importance of keeping Western Europe free from Communism. In Greece a large Communist demonstration taking place in Athens against British interference in the post war government is dissolved by gunfire of secret soldiers leaving 25 protesters dead and 148 wounded.

1945 In Finland Communist Interior Minister Leino exposes a secret stay-behind which is being closed down.

1947 In the United States President Harry Truman creates the National Security Council (NSC) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The covert action branch of the CIA, the Office of Policy Coordination (OPC) under Frank Wisner sets up stay-behind armies in Western Europe.

1947 In France Interior Minister Edouard Depreux reveals the existence of a secret stay-behind army in France codenamed „Plan Bleu“.

1947 In Austria a secret stay-behind is exposed which had been set up by right-wing extremists Soucek and Rössner. Chancellor Körner pardons the accused under mysterious circumstances.

1948 In France the “Western Union Clandestine Committee” (WUCC) is being created to coordinate secret unorthodox warfare. After the creation of NATO a year later the WUCC is being integrated into the military alliance under the name “Clandestine Planning Committee” (CPC).

1949 The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) is founded and the European headquarters is established in France.

1951 In Sweden CIA agent William Colby based at the CIA station in Stockholm supports the training of stay-behind armies in neutral Sweden and Finland and in the NATO members Norway and Denmark. Continue reading